Types of Marine fenders
When the ships gets berthed so as to avoid damaged caused by the frictions between ship and jetty fenders are placed between them, they are specially designed and normally made up of rubber foam plastic or wooden.
They are made in such a way that they absorb the kinetic energy caused by the friction (as due to the underwater current the vessel keeps moving )and thus prevents damage to the vessel or jetty.
Marine fenders are used to prevent boat ships or other vessel experiencing collision against other vessels, wharf or jetty.
They are used when the ship is resting in the jetty (during alongside) or when there is transfer of fuel is taking place (Bunkering process) in sea where small Bunker vessel or Bunker Barge is tied to the other vessel so as to avoid chaffing these fenders are placed between both of them ,Fenders are genereally not available on ships and its duty of the bunker barge to bring fenders with them but on jetty they are fixed.
Earlier fenders were woven from rope in different patterns. Rope fender are still used today by many boat owners.
Characteristics of fenders
- Fenders must have high vitality ingestion with low response power
- High toughness as the inside burdens are scattered all through the bumper body
- Wide choice of sizes, length and vitality limits
- Can be mount both vertically and horizontally
- Ease of establishment
They have been recently introduced and recommended for any severe conditions including high-low tide variations
Cone fenders are attached with large fender panels, which keeps the ship’s hull pressure low.
They bear serious shear outside power by utilizing its cone shaped body shape. With its high versatility levels they are all the more regularly utilized in large port development.
High strength as the inward pressure are scattered all through the bumper body.
The cylindrical fender is very simple and most economical designed ,they can be easily installed on jetty with the help of chains passing through them and fixed on jetty.
They are designed so that any kind of
vessel can be berthed safely
The material used is very thick and has progressive load deflection curve
Cell fenders are best for any type of vessels where reaction force is an important factor. Among all types of fenders, cell fenders have high absorption with low reaction The shape absorb energy equally from all multi-directions they contain very good shear force resistance
Cell fenders are attached with large fender panels, which keeps the ship’s hull pressure low.
Cell fenders are the most durable type rubber fenders.
These cell fenders are widely used in ports where ships have to encounter low tide during cargo operations.
Arch fenders can be used for small and medium size ships and boats and provide excellent cushion service to the ship and jetty.
Arch fenders are simple and durable in design but provides excellent results it suits to the vessel with high ship’s hull pressure with low reaction force.
Arch fenders can be installed both vertically and horizontally and are very easy to install.
5. Pneumatic fender
The pneumatic fender also known as Yokohama fender or the floating fender.They are available in various sizes.
Pneumatic fenders are made up of rubbers and are like strong balloons filled by air or gas under pressure.
There are 4 basic types of pneumatic fenders:
Type I (Chain&Tyre Net Type)
Type II (Sling Type)
Type III (Rib Type)
Type IV (Rope Net Type).
They are considered as the leading anti-collision fender for maritime industry.
They protect against collision in ship-to ship contacts and ship-to-berthing.
They must comply with ISO guidelines and standards
Pneumatic fenders provides minimum pressure to the vessel hull ,it absorbs the maximum kinetic energy.
Their biggest advantage is that they absorb maximum kinetic energy with low unit surface acted on upon the ship.
Types of Marine fenders
LEG TYPE FENDERS
Leg Type Fenders are easily to mount and are very economical fenders
Leg type fenders are divided into three parts.
Two of them are rubber parts which is said as leg section, other one is Polyethylene plate (HDPE) or steel panel meeting the berthing and the upper part (HDPE)
Generally they are preferred for large ships.
It is almost same as Arch Type Fender however they are made in such a way to absorb high energy with more reaction power resistance.
Leg type fenders can be called as
Modular legged type fender,
Modular fender with element,
Modular V type fender,
i)They are able to bear the force coming from almost every direction
ii) prevent the deformation and fragmentation.
They can be assembled in every position and can assembled instead of length extensible other types.
Types of Marine fenders –Parallel motion
Parallel motion Fenders:
Parallel motion fenders will scale back reaction forces up to hour compared with different standard styles.
The panel on this type of fender is that it stays vertical however will cope with wide berthing points ( even at 20°) by and huge there no loss in energy consumption.
Parallel Motion may be a special fender system and may solely be utilized in consultation with local bodies.
Parallel motion fenders are often used with cone fenders , cell fenders or component Fenders.
A turning switch arm (torsion arm) is mounted between the back structure (cement or steel) and the frontal steel board. The arm confine the panel movement during the whole pressure, permitting it to move just parallel to its mounting, independent of impact and angle.
Fender frameworks must be interestingly intended for each venture so as to cover all the individual vessel and berthing prerequisites just as the site conditions.
Parallel motion fenders are good for belted vessels including ferries and RoRo , LNG carriers and tankers. The design consists of two Cone fenders connected flange to flange to maximize the energy absorption and reduce load on framework.
Slide in Slide out fender
Slide in Slide out are made so that the time and trouble taken to fix a fender wear pad change out is minimized.
Unlike other fender frame systems where pads are drilled directly to a fixed frontal frame through a bolt fixing arrangement,
The pads are fixed with the bolt in double steel removable panels.
This panels is then infused into a guiding rail on the face of the fixed frontal frame.
The sliding panels can then be easily lifted out of the frontal frame and new one reinserted within few hours it reduces the time on the jetty and keeps cargo operations running without any delay.
The original panels can then be transferred to shore for maintenance and have their wear pads changed, once repaired they can be used as spare one for the future fender pad change.
This system also reduces the safety risks with the personnel engage in replacement work and also time taken for whole process is very less.
Extruded Fenders are simple long cylindrical rubber fender with a powerful design and are mostly used for small vessels & tugs.
They are available in almost any length and width and are very easy to install
They are first made and then cut to the required length and drilled to the structure either on top or sides of the fender
Pre-curved sections are also made available as per the need.
They are available in D shape , square shape & Wing type .
Types of Marine fenders –composite fender
Composite fender Or rubbylene fenders are made up of composite rubber material which provide maximum elasticity to the vessel .
Materials are inter-connected by special hardening process to get stronger and permanent joint.
Composite fenders are used in flat simple places
There are three types of Composite fenders
Block composite fender
Keyhole composite fender
Trapezium composite fender
Marine Fender Bars
Marine fender bars are very versatile and are very strong made up to have highest impact resistance. These bars have wider flexibility of application.
These Bar fenders are generally used in open sea area where construction is exposed to heavy sea impacts and sea or wind pressure
One important factor of this type of fender is its vulcanised internal steel plate, it provides strength to the fender.
The steel plate fender bars are well drilled and fixed to the construction which maintains strong bond.
Fender bars are used to protect:
corners of quays
Types of Marine fenders –Foam type
Foam fenders are consider better then Rubber fenders as it is more durable and can be produced in color of choice,These fenders are made up of polyethylene and polyurethane which resist water to get inside.
Polyurethane is considered to have low friction and low s.g
Due to the absence of internal pressure these type of fenders are best for the ship to ship operations like bunker transfer from bunker vessel to bunkering
Due to their strong feature the occurrence of damage is rarely found, but if it happens foam fenders can function until repairs are done.
Sea guard fenders
- Sea guard fenders are deployed and works well in harbor against a quay and ship to ship operations .They are very durable and have very low maintenance cost.
They can bear any amount of pressure ,rough sea and tidal conditions.
Polyurethane is used which is highly resistance to ultraviolet rays,these type of fenders is unsinkable and never deflate
b) Sea-cushion fenders:
These fenders have high elasticity and high energy absorption and the reaction force is very low ,the skin is tough and thick ,they do not burst that’s why they are best suited to Gas Carrier which is also one of their superior quality.
They are made up of closed cell foam that prevent them from sinking even if they are damaged or ruptured, closed cell also prevent water to penetrate inside the fender
Donut style fenders
Donut style fenders are Special foam fenders designed in such a way that it rotates and can move freely up and down this type of fender helps to align a ship while berthing
The internal steel casing has bearing which produce minimal friction that helps the fender in its movement ,this type use closed cell which are high energy absorbing in nature.
They are also like sea cushion fenders and do not sink even if they are damaged or ruptured
Donut type fender is very durable and requires very less maintenance
Tug Fender also called bumpers are installed or fixed at the fore part of the Tug called as Bow and aft part know as Stern and is used to push the big vessels.
Now a days tugs are using large cylindrical fenders on the bow or stern as primary pushing fenders.
The cylindrical shape is ideal for pushing a large bow and flat sided vessels
They are made of hardest material as they are exposed to most hard conditions as tugs must work for long and extreme conditions.
As they even have to constantly push large vessels made up of steel their chances of getting wear and tear is more.
Tug fenders are made having high resistance and low density, they are cost efficient and last long .
Key Hole Fender-
Keyhole fenders(Block and Cube fender) are the mostly used on tugs ,small crafts and ferries.
They are very strong and meant for heavy duties, depending on the level of friction grooved or flat face fender can be used
Tapered solid square fender
Tapered solid square fender are durable as well as versatile in nature they are used when impacts are high and frequent, they can handle any amount of pressure without getting damage.
Once installed their life is very long and very less maintenance is required
M&W Tug Fenders
M shape rubber fender are designed in the shape of alphabet M and due to their grooved surface they provide extra grip while three or triple legs act as strong bond to the ship and due to their light weight they provide required stability to the tug.
M shaped is widely used due to its attachment quality and design which gives heavy duty.
W fender are used in case of extreme and unfavorable sea conditions these type of fenders are most commonly used by tugboats, special flexible legs of w type fenders allows to be curved around along most of the vessel hull structures.
Types of Marine fenders
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